Scroll-driven animations case studies

Swetha Gopalakrishnan
Swetha Gopalakrishnan
Saurabh Rajpal
Saurabh Rajpal

Scroll-driven animations are a common UX pattern on the web. A scroll-driven animation is linked to the scroll position of a scroll container. This means that as you scroll up or down, the linked animation scrubs forward or backward in direct response. Examples of this are effects such as parallax background images or reading indicators which move as you scroll.

Developers have typically created scroll-driven animations by using JavaScript to respond to scroll events on the main thread. This makes it hard to create performant scroll-driven animations that are in sync with scrolling, due to scroll events being delivered asynchronously, and often leads to jank due to being on the main thread.

However, as part of the new CSS and UI features landing in browsers, you can now create declarative scroll-driven animations. With Scroll Timelines and View Timelines, new concepts that integrate with the existing Web Animations API (WAAPI) and CSS Animations API, you can now have silky smooth scroll-driven animations running off the main thread, with just a few lines of code. In this case study, discover how Tokopedia, redBus, and Policybazaar are already benefiting from this new feature.

Browser Support

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Tokopedia replaced their previous custom JavaScript implementations with Scroll-driven animations to optimize their page performance, and to enhance overall browsing experience across their ecommerce conversion funnel.

We managed to reduce up to 80% of our lines of code compared to using conventional JavaScript scroll events and observed that the average CPU usage reduced from 50% to 2% while scrolling— Andy Wihalim, Senior Software Engineer, Tokopedia

Animated changing visibility of top sticky bar based on user scroll position.


The following implementation uses the scroll() function to set an anonymous scroll progress timeline for controlling the progress of the CSS animation. The visibility of the top sticky bar changes based on the scroll position within the defined animationRange.

const toggleBar = keyframes({
  to: { height: 48 },

export const cssWrapper = css({
  position: 'fixed',
  left: 0,
  width: '100vw',
  pointerEvents: 'none',
  marginTop: 120,
  height: 0,
  overflow: 'hidden',
  display: 'flex',
  flexDirection: 'column',
  justifyContent: 'flex-end',
  animation: `${toggleBar} linear both`,
  animationTimeline: 'scroll()',
  animationRange: '20px 70px',


redBus has different animations for mobile and desktop on their things-to-do landing page, which is shown early in the conversion funnel to all users. With scroll-driven animations, they were able to replace these custom JavaScript implementations with CSS to achieve the same effect.

Use cases

Photo Gallery with Image Reveal (for mobile) and Cover Flow (for Desktop).

Scroll-driven animation image reveal effect for loading images on redBus "Things To Do" photo gallery.

Code (Mobile)

In the previous example, Tokopedia used the anonymous scroll progress timeline. In the following code, redBus uses the named view progress timeline. The animation changes the opacity and clip-path of the <img> element within the defined animation-range inside the element's nearest ancestor scroller, which is the photo gallery scroller in this case.

const reveal = keyframes`
   from {
       opacity: 0;
       clip-path: inset(45% 20% 45% 20%);
   to {
       opacity: 1;
       clip-path: inset(0% 0% 0% 0%);

const CardImage = styled.div`
   width: 100%;
   height: 100%;
   img {
       border-top-left-radius: 0.75rem;
       border-top-right-radius: 0.75rem;
       height: 100%;
       width: 100%;
       object-fit: cover;
       view-timeline-name: --revealing-image;
       view-timeline-axis: block;
       /* Attach animation, linked to the  View Timeline */
       animation: linear ${reveal} both;
       animation-timeline: --revealing-image;
       /* Tweak range when effect should run*/
       animation-range: entry 25% cover 50%;

We are very happy to see this feature as it's a perfect blend of performance with better experience, boosting our Page Experience signals for SEO. On top of that, the minimal learning curve makes it a must-have for every ecommerce website. We also got positive feedback and support from other teams to leverage SDA for more user journeys.— Amit Kumar, Senior Engineering Manager, redBus.


Comparing insurance plans is a repeated key action taken by users to guide their decision making process. Using scroll-driven animations, Policybazaar shrank the size of low-priority elements in response to the user scrolling the table. This resulted in a graceful scrolling experience while improving readability.

With scroll-driven animations, we were able maximize the viewport space for the user to compare plans, ensuring a focused and clutter-free reading experience.—Rishabh Mehrotra, Head of Design for Life Insurance BU, PolicyBazaar.

Scroll-driven animation animate-timeline on compare-plan table in Investment and Life LOB (Line of Business).


Similar to the previous example from Tokopedia, Policybazaar is using the scroll() function to set an anonymous scroll progress timeline for controlling the progress of the CSS animation. In this case shrinking the font size and fading the header based on the scroll position within the defined animation-range.

@supports (animation-timeline: scroll()) {
.plan-comparison .inner-header {
animation: move-and-fade-header linear both;
.plan-comparison .left-side {
animation: shrink-name linear both;
.plan-comparison .inner-header, .plan-comparison .left-side {
animation-timeline: scroll();
animation-range: 0 150px;

@keyframes move-and-fade-header {
  to {
    translate: 0% -5%;

@keyframes shrink-name {
  to {
    font-size: 1.5rem;

Scroll-driven animations as a common pattern across the user journey

All the featured ecommerce companies used Scroll-driven animations on pages with cards, animating cards to bring the user's attention to them . The following examples show scroll effects on cards in different parts of the user journey. This is typically achieved using an anonymous view progress timeline for controlling the progress of the custom CSS animation, as shown in the following CSS snippet.

@keyframes animate-in {
 0% { opacity: 0; transform: translateY(10%); }
 100% { opacity: 1; transform: translateY(0); }

@keyframes animate-out {
 0% { opacity: 1; transform: translateY(0); }
 100% { opacity: 0; transform: translateY(-10%); }

.flyin_animate {
   animation: animate-in linear forwards;
   animation-timeline: view();
   animation-range: entry;

redBus (Home page)

Scroll-driven animation fly-in effect for loading product cards on redBus "Things To Do" landing page.

Policybazaar (Product Listing Page)

Scroll-driven animation fade-in, fade-out of product cards in Investment and Life LOB (Line of Business).

Tokopedia (Product Details Page)

Fade-in, Fade-out animation while scrolling through the products listed.

Things to consider when using the Scroll-driven Animations API

It's possible to polyfill scroll-driven animations for non-supporting browsers, for example with the Scroll-timeline polyfill. If you do, this will require additional testing to make sure that it works well alongside your framework, and that browsers using the polyfill don't experience animation failure or janky experiences.

From CSS you can use @supports to test for support of animation-timeline before using scroll-driven animations. For example:

@supports (animation-timeline: scroll()) {



Explore the other articles in this series which talks about how ecommerce companies benefited from using new CSS and UI features such as View Transitions, Popover, Container Queries and the has() selector.